THE ART OF THE SAMURAI
The period of Japanese history between the 8th and 16th centuries was covered with constant civil war and many systems of Jiu-Jitsu were utilized, practiced and perfected on the battlefield. This training was used to conquer armored and armed opponents.
Many close fighting techniques were created and mastered during this era. In 1532 Hisamori Tenenuchi officially established the first school of Jiu-Jitsu in Japan.
In 1559, a Chinese monk named Chin Gen Pinh came to Japan, accompanied with his knowledge and experience of Kempo, known as the “China Hand.” Shortly after Chin Gen Pinh arrived in Japan, Hideyoshi Toyotomi also migrated to Japan from China, bringing with him Ch-an Fa and Korean Tang Su, a punching and nerve striking skill and method of fighting. These skills were perfected and integrated into Jiu-Jitsu.
In approximately 1603, Japan came to a fairly peaceful period following the formation of the Tokugawa military government by Tokugawa Ieyasu. During this time (1603-1868), the feudal civil wars that had plagued Japan for centuries started to disappear. However, following the adage "living in peace, but remembering war," the practice of jujitsu continued to spread. Forms and techniques displaying weapons skills of fighting began to yield to weaponless styles which incorporated many of the grappling ground fighting techniques of the older styles.
The traditions of classical budo (martial arts) required that a everyone should learn a method of self-defense for those situations where weapons could not be used. Universally, these techniques were known as Jujutsu.
It has been estimated that there were about 725 recorded systems of jujutsu in vogue during its golden age from 1680 to 1850.
The Meiji Restoration of the Emperor replaced the feudal military regime established by Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1603.
This happened because growing internal unrest in the middle 1800's convinced the shogun that return of power to the Emperor was called for. During the Meiji period, with the collapse of the feudal system, Japan started to open up to western culture and customs.